ACROSCOPIC: Those segments of the blade on the upper side of the pinna rachis, facing the apex of the frond
ADNATE: Fused, usually laterally, to an unlike structure, as blade to rachis
APOGAMY: The formation of a sporophyte from a gametophyte by asexual means such as budding, rather than by egg formation; also refereed to as apomitic although this term covers a broader meaning.
ARISTATE: Tapering to a narrow elongate apex or spike.
AURICULATE: Bearing one or two auricles
AURICLE: A low, basal lobe
BASISCOPIC: Those segments on the lower side of the pinnae rachis, facing the base of the frond.
BIPINNATE: Pinnae divided two times
BLADE: The expanded leafy portion of a frond not including the stipe.
BULBIL: An asexual bud occurring on the main or secondary rachis capable of forming a new plant before or after being detached from the parent.
CAUDATE: Bearing a narrow, elongate tail
CAUDEX: The central crown or upright rhizome of a fern.
CONGESTED: Rachis shortened so that the pinnules overlap like shingles on a roof; associated with dwarf forms. See IMBRICATE
CONNATE: Fused, usually laterally, to a similar structure, as one pinna to another
CRISPED: Having the margins waved or curled.
CRISTATE: When the pinnae or pinnules are divided into one or more terminal divisions from the normal form.
CREEPING: Extending horizontally in or on the soil
CRENATE: Shallowly scalloped, with rounded teeth
CROZIER: Young uncoiling frond; fiddlehead.
CUSPIDATE: Rather abruptly constricted at the apex to a narrow, sharp-pointed tip
DELTATE: Broadly triangular with an obtuse apex
DEPAUPERATE: Having missing or defective parts; as in the linearis section
DIMORPHIC: Having two distinct shapes; in ferns this usually refers to sterile versus fertile blades or portions of blades.
ELLIPTIC: Having the outline of an elongate circle
ELONGATE: Much longer than wide
FALCATE: Sickle-shaped; curved and flat.
FARINA: A white, yellow, or other colored , waxy appearing exudates of glands; in ferns especially in the desert or xeric ferns.
FERTILE: Having sporangia and producing viable spores.
FIDDLEHEAD: Young uncoiling frond; fiddlehead.
FIMBRIATE: Fringed; dissected into fine segments.
FROND: A fern leaf including the stipe and the blade.
GRANDICEPS: Having a much divided terminal crest; capitate.
IMBRICATE: Rachis shortened so that the pinnules nearly overlap one another; associated with dwarf forms
LACERATE: Deeply and irregularly cleft on the margin
LANCEOLATE: Shaped like a lance or spear-head, as of leaves tapering at both ends, much longer than broad, and wider below the middle.
LOBE: A portion of a balde, pinna, or pinnule, or segement, that is fully connate and with a shallow sinus on either side that extends no more thanhalf way from the lobe apex to the axis that the lobe is attached to
MARGINATE: Having a margin with a distinctive fringed or cut character.
OVATE: Having an oval shape
PERCRISTATE: All tips crested including the pinnules; crests on crests.
PINNA (Plural = PINNAE): Primary division of a compound blade.
PINNATE: Divided simply with the pinnae arranged on either side of the rachis.
PINNATIFID: Divided into lobes, with the clefts reaching halfway or more but not completely to the supporting rachis.
PINNULE: A division of a pinna; ultimate segment.
RACHIS: Midrib of a blade; continuation of the stipe through the blade.
RHIZOME: A dorsiventral stem of a root-like appearance which produces fronds above and roots below; usually creeping although in some ferns it forms a clump holding the fronds close together, and in others it is short, thick and upright; a caudex, producing a tufted appearance.
SCALE: A membranous chaffy hair found on the rhizome, stipe and occasionally on the blade surface.
SERRATE: Toothed; having margins notched like a saw.
SETOSE: Having bristly straight hairs
SORUS (Plural = SORI): Arrangement or cluster of spore cases.
SPORANGIUM (Plural = SPORANGIA): A small stalked capsule in which spores grow; the spore case.
SPORE: A minute asexual body.
STIPE: Leaf stalk of a fern excluding the leafy portion.
TRIPINNATE: Pinnae divided three times
VEIN: A strand of vascular tissue in a frond or part of a frond that conducts water and nutrients and strengthens the structure.